Programa do CILX2018

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TítuloThe concepts of urban koine and folklore koine in the theory of standard languages: origin, distribution, definition
AutoríaKateryna Karunyk (Kharkiv National University)
ResumoThe term ‘koine’ stems from the Greek name of the common Attic dialect (????? ?????????), spread as supra-regional form of Greek in the 4th cent. BC. In modern usage it denotes any common language or lingua franca. In the theory of standard languages ‘koine’ is at present one of the focal concepts. Especially the Slavicists, who work in this domain, apply it in the context of shaping of national and standard languages.

In 1899 the Russian philologist Aleksandr Veselovskij (1838–1906) advanced the term ‘oral epic koine’ [???????-??????????? ?????] or ‘poetic koine’ [??????????? ?????]. When a serious research in the history of Slavic languages and in the theory of standard languages made a certain progress in the early 1960s, Nikita Tolstoy (1923–1996), the Russian Slavicist, gave a theoretical overview of this problem. He came up with the terms ‘urban koine’, ‘poetic koine’ and ‘interdialectal koine’. In 1965 the Croatian linguist Dalibor Brozovi? (1927–2009) introduced the concept of ‘foklorne koine’ in his typological study of the Slavonic standard languages. The Standard Serbo-Croatian, according to him, was based on the ‘neo-shtokavian folklore koine’. It appeared also in his subsequent publications. Other Slavicists (Kevin N. Kenjar, Konstantin Lifanov, Viktoryja Liashuk), who deal with history of standard languages, make use of the concept ‘folklore koine’ sometimes referring to Brozovi?. Further research in the field of standard languages approved that some languages had developed from the supradialectal folklore koine (e.g. Slovak (Lifanov), Ukrainian (Shevelov), Belorussian (Liashuk), Albanian (Desnickaja), Montenegrin (Vasiljeva)), while others had sprung from the urban koine (e.g. Macedonian (Andreevski), Arabic (Ferguson)).

Various equivalents of the term ‘folklore koine’ (e.g. ‘folklore interdialect’, ‘oral epic koine’, ‘oral poetic koine’, ‘poetic koine’) are still in use. In spite of this, the concept of ‘folklore koine’ is gaining ground in the research dealing with the history of standard languages. At the same time the notion ‘urban koine’ has developed several modified meanings. Though some linguists juxtapose the concepts of ‘folklore koine’ and of ‘urban koine’, the theory of standard languages is still lacking a generalized approach toward formation of a language on the basis of this or that koine.

The proposed paper is aimed at revealing the usage of the terms ‘urban koine’ and ‘folklore koine’ in practice and theory of standard languages, including a search for their earliest appearance and thus for their origin. I also intend to find out principal typological differences in the way each type of koine forms and then reshapes into a standard language.
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